​see also Koden Consulting Services, LLC

Research On The Use Of Appreciative Inquiry In The Workplace

Stowell, F., Appreciative Inquiry Method- A Suitable Candidate for Action Research? Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Volume 30 (1), pages 15–30, January/February 2013

Bushe, G.R. (2011) Appreciative inquiry: Theory and critique. Boje, D., Burnes, B. and Hassard, J. (eds.) The Routledge Companion To Organizational Change (pp. 87­103). Oxford, UK: Routledge. 

Gervase R. Bushe, Ph.D., Segal Graduate School of Business Simon Fraser University.  Appreciative Inquiry Is Not About The Positive (A look at AI as a generative process that includes negative outcomes). 2007 . www.gervasebushe.ca 

Egan, T., Feyerman, A., A Blueprint for Change: Appreciative Inquiry. Graziado Business Review, 2005, 8, (3)

​Deutschman, A. “Change or Die.” Fast Company. May, 2005.

Ludema, J. D., Whitney, D., Mohr, B. J., & Griffen, T. J. The Appreciative Inquiry Summit: A Practitioner’s Guide for Leading Large-Group Change. (San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler, 2003).

Watkins, J. M., Mohr, B. J. Appreciative Inquiry: Change at the Speed of Imagination. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer, 2001)

Research On The Use Of Character Strengths Development In The Workplace

Character strengths were related to job performance across two samples of employees (Harzer & Ruch, in press). 
Harzer, C., & Ruch, W. (in press). The role of character strengths for task performance, job dedication, interpersonal facilitation, and organizational support. Human Performance.

The use of strengths at work was connected with work performance, and this relationship is explained by vitality, concentration, and harmonious passion (Dubreuil, Forest, & Courcy, 2013). Dubreuil, P., Forest, J., & Courcy, F. (2013). From strengths use to work performance: The role of harmonious passion, subjective vitality and concentration. Journal of Positive Psychology. 

Employees who used four or more of their signature strengths had more positive work experiences and work-as-a-calling than those who expressed less than four (Harzer & Ruch, 2012a).  Harzer, C., & Ruch, W. (2012a). When the job is a calling: The role of applying one's signature strengths at work. Journal of Positive Psychology.

Regardless of which character strengths are used, the congruent use of strengths in the situational circumstances at work is important for fostering job satisfaction, pleasure, engagement, and meaning in one’s job (i.e., the alignment of one’s signature strengths with work activities is what matters; Harzer & Ruch, 2012b).  Harzer, C., & Ruch, W. (2012b). The application of signature character strengths and positive experiences at work. Journal of Happiness Studies.

In a qualitative case study of a management development program, a key finding was to help managers develop new “tools” and behaviors and core to these tools was signature strengths use (Berg & Karlsen, 2012).  Berg, M. E., & Karlsen, J. T. (2012). An evaluation of management training and coaching. Journal of Workplace Learning, 24 (3), 177-199.

Across occupations, curiosity, zest, hope, gratitude, and spirituality are the Big 5 strengths associated with work satisfaction (Peterson et al., 2010). Peterson, C., Stephens, J. P., Park, N., Lee, F., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2010). Strengths of character and work. Oxford handbook of positive psychology and work. In Linley, P. A., Harrington, S., & Garcea, N. (Eds.). Oxford handbook of positive psychology and work (pp. 221-231). New York: Oxford University Press.

Character strengths use was connected with personal well-being and job satisfaction (Littman-Ovadia & Davidovitch, 2010). 
Littman-Ovadia, H., & Davidovitch, N. (2010). Effects of congruence and character-strength deployment on work adjustment and well-being. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 1 (3), 138-146.

In a three-year thematic analysis of drivers of employee engagement, focusing on character strengths was among the three most crucial drivers (along with managing emotions and aligning purpose; Crabb, 2011). Specifically, employees are encouraged to identify, use, and alert others of their signature strengths as well as converse with managers about strengths use opportunities in the organization.  Crabb, S. (2011). The use of coaching principles to foster employee engagement. The Coaching Psychologist,7 (1), 27-34.

In a unique study of top-level executive leaders of for-profit companies (studying only the strengths of honesty/integrity, bravery, perspective, social intelligence), each of these strengths were important for performance but honesty/integrity had the most contribution in explaining variance in executive performance (Sosik et al., 2012).  Sosik, J. J., Gentry, W. A., & Chun, J. A. (2012). The value of virtue in the upper echelons: A multisource examination of executive character strengths and performance. Leadership Quarterly, 23, 367-382.

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